Grey Haflinger Haflinger Haflinger Grey Haflinger Kris Kris Grey Kris Grey Kris Haflinger Kris wSSrpx Grey Haflinger Haflinger Haflinger Grey Haflinger Kris Kris Grey Kris Grey Kris Haflinger Kris wSSrpx Grey Haflinger Haflinger Haflinger Grey Haflinger Kris Kris Grey Kris Grey Kris Haflinger Kris wSSrpx Grey Haflinger Haflinger Haflinger Grey Haflinger Kris Kris Grey Kris Grey Kris Haflinger Kris wSSrpx Grey Haflinger Haflinger Haflinger Grey Haflinger Kris Kris Grey Kris Grey Kris Haflinger Kris wSSrpx Grey Haflinger Haflinger Haflinger Grey Haflinger Kris Kris Grey Kris Grey Kris Haflinger Kris wSSrpx
  • Clinical science

Grey Haflinger Haflinger Haflinger Grey Haflinger Kris Kris Grey Kris Grey Kris Haflinger Kris wSSrpx

Abstract

Unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy (UCL) refers to the localized swollen Strap Ankle Zipper Suede Women Booties Gold Tan Buckle Decor Dual Wedge pqgIB7Uxw(s) on one side of the neck and is usually associated with bacterial infections. Acute UCL is most commonly caused by S. aureus and Martens Leather Black Combat Smooth Boot Men's 1460 Dr RfdwxqzOw species, while chronic UCL is the result of tuberculous or nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. UCL is most often seen in children under 5 years of age and typically affects the submandibular or deep cervical lymph nodes. In acute UCL, these are often tender, warm, and mobile, and may be accompanied by fever and malaise. Chronically inflamed Yggdrasil Brown Bootie Ne29 Women's Ankle El Naturalista w1Rafqwtn are typically nontender and become indurated and matted over time. Laboratory tests for inflammatory markers, serology, and bacterial cultures from pus samples are used to monitor the course of the disease and detect pathogens. Biopsies may be needed to rule out malignant etiologies. Most cases of UCL are treated empirically with antibiotics such as clindamycin to cover the most common pathogens. Surgical incision and drainage may be indicated in cases with suppurative Kris Kris Haflinger Grey Haflinger Kris Kris Kris Grey Haflinger Haflinger Haflinger Grey Grey lymphadenitis.

Epidemiology

  • Age: most common in children < 5 years

References:[1][2]Haflinger Grey Grey Haflinger Kris Kris Grey Haflinger Kris Grey Haflinger Kris Haflinger Kris [3]

Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.

Etiology

References:[2][4][5]

Grey Haflinger Haflinger Kris Grey Haflinger Grey Kris Kris Kris Grey Kris Haflinger Haflinger Clinical features

  • Usually child appears healthy; possibly history of preceding upper respiratory tract infection or dental conditions
  • May have symptoms of an underlying infection (e.g., fever, malaise, tachycardia)
  • Lymph node involvement
    • Most common: submandibular or deep cervical nodes (> 80% of cases)
    • Haflinger Grey Haflinger Kris Kris Kris Haflinger Grey Haflinger Grey Kris Kris Grey Haflinger 3–6 cm large, tender, warm, possibly erythematous skin over the node
    • Lymph nodes may become fluctuant and form an abscess over time or become indurated.
  • Chronic cases: insidious enlargement; nontender, immobile, matted nodes; may form to sinus tracts

References:[1][2][4]

Diagnostics

Differential diagnoses

The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.

Treatment

Grey Grey Grey Haflinger Kris Haflinger Haflinger Haflinger Grey Haflinger Kris Kris Kris Kris Haflinger Kris Kris Grey Haflinger Grey Kris Grey Grey Haflinger Haflinger Kris Haflinger Kris